Jamun is known as the indigenous crop of Pakistan. Its fruits are used for eating and seeds are used to prepare various drugs. Drugs prepared from Jamun plant is used to cure diabetes and increased blood sugar level. It is an evergreen tree with average height of 30m having brown or grey bark. Leaves are smooth which are 10-15cm long and 4-6cm wide. Flowers are yellow in color which is 5mm in diameter and having green fruits which turns crimson red at maturity.
For Jamun plantation, it requires well prepared land. To bring soil to good level, plough land once. Then pits are dug and are filled with Farm Yard Manure in the ratio of 3:1. Transplantation of seedlings is done on raised beds.
Time of sowing
It is planted in both spring and monsoon season. In spring season, it is planted in the month of February-March and in monsoon season it is planted in the month of July-August.
For seedling trees, spacing of 10m on both ways is recommended and for budded seedlings, spacing of 8m on both ways is recommended.
The sowing depth should be 4-5cm.
Method of sowing
Direct sowing is done by seeds.Grafting method is also used.
One seed per pit is used.
To protect crop from soil borne disease and pest, before sowing do seed treatment with Bavistin. After chemical treatment seeds are air dried and are used for sowing.
The plant is raised mainly through grafting or seeds.
NURSERY MANAGEMENT AND TRANSPLANTING
Sow Jamun seeds on raised beds having convenient length and are 4-5cm deep. After sowing beds are covered with thin cloth to retain moisture. To protect crop form virus attack the seeds are first treated with Bavistin. Germination starts within 10-15 days from sowing.
Pits are dug before monsoon or spring season. Pits are dug with convenient measurements i.e. 1m x 1m x 1m. On these prepared pits transplanting is done.
Transplanting is mainly done in next monsoon when the seedlings have 3-4 leaves. Water seedling beds 24hours before transplanting so that seedlings can be easily uprooted and be turgid at transplanting time.
Apply well rotten Farmyard manure or compost @20-25kg/plant/year in pre bearing period. The FYM dose should be increased when plants get mature i.e. 50-60kg/plant/year is given. Apply fertilizer dose of Nitrogen @500g/plant/year, potassium @600g/plant/year and potash@300g/plant/year is given to grown up trees.
Regular irrigation at regular interval of time is necessary for this plant. Light irrigation is necessary immediately after manuring. For young plant it requires 6-8 irrigations and for mature plant it requires 5-6 irrigations. Along with regular irrigations, once irrigation is required in the month of September – October for good bud growth and one is required in the month of May – June for good fruit growth. If drought occurs for long time then life-saving irrigation is given.
Pest and their control
Jamun leaf caterpillar
The leaf caterpillar will affect the crop by feeding themselves on leaves. .To get rid of caterpillar pest spraying of Dimethoate 30 EC @1.2ml/ltr should be done.
Bark eating caterpillar
The caterpillar will affect the crop by eating bark of tissue.
Treatment: Spraying of Rogor30 EC@3ml/ltr or Malathion 50 EC @3ml/ltr of water is done at the time of flowering to get rid from Bark eating caterpillar.
Jamun leaf roller
The leaf roller will affect the crop by rolling the leaves. Treatment with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @2ml/ltr or Endosulfan 35 EC @2ml/ltr is done to cure from leaf roller pest.
The leaf webber with affect the crop by eating leaves and buds. Treatment with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @2ml/ltr or Endosulfan 35 EC @2ml/ltr is done to get rid of leaf webber.
Disease and their control
It causes leaf spots, defoliation and dieback disease in the crop. If infestation is observed take spray of Zineb 75WP@400gm or M-45@400gm per acre in 150 ltr of water.Flower and fruit drop: In this the flower and fruits gets drop early without maturing. This will result in low yield.Spraying of Gibberellic acid 3 is done two times, one when full bloom occurs and next after 15 days of interval when fruit set.
Harvesting is mainly done daily after the fruit matures. Harvesting is mainly done by the climb pickers. The fruit which is blackish purple in color is chosen for harvesting. While harvesting care should be taken to avoid any injury to fruit. For processing and seed extraction purpose, fully ripe fruits with soft flesh are used.
After harvesting, grading is done. Then fruits are packed in Bamboo baskets or crates or wooden boxes. To increase self-life of Jamun they are kept at low temperature. Perfect packing and quick transport is done for less spoilage of fruits. From fruits various products like vinegar, capsules, seed powder, jams, jellies and squashes are made after processing.