Cultivation of Oat
Local Name : Jawa
Family : Gramineae
Botanical Name : Avena sativa
Origin : Asia minor
Oat is mainly grown as a fodder crop but occasionally grown as grain crop.
Introduction of oats:
Oat is primarily cultivated for fodder crop as well as grain crop. The cultivation practices are similar to wheat farming. Oats belong to the family of Poacea (alt. Graminaeae). Oats were originated from Mediterranean region. Recently they became very popular due to their health benefits. Oats botanical name is Avena sativa L and belongs to tribe of Poeae. Oat meal is most famous food made out of oats.
Climate : It is a cool season crop.
Soil : It grows best on well drained, fertile loamy soils.
Varieties : Np-1, NP-2, Brunker-10, Weston-11. S2000, PD 2, LV 65, CK1
Cultural Methods in Oat Cultivation:
- Land is ploughed 5 to 6 times with deshi plough.
- Sowing is done by drilling method at 25 to 30 cm distances between two rows.
- The seed rate is 75 to 80 kg/ha.
- Some of sowing is October – November.
- Usually one to two hoeing are given as intercultural operations.
- When grown under irrigation, then 40 kg N and 20 kg P2O5/ha. is given.
- Usually it is grown as rainfed crop but if irrigation is available, two irrigations are given at one month interval from sowing.
Health benefits of oats:
Following are some of the health benefits of oats.
- Oats are a source of low calories, high protein and high fiber
- Oats may help in reducing bad cholesterol
- Oats are heart healthy and protect from cancer
- Oats regulates the blood sugar levels by improving insulin sensitivity
- Oats are a source of good antioxidants
- Oats may help in controlling blood pressure
- Oats may help in weight loss
- Oats may help in building strong immune system.
- Oats are gluten free and safe
Local names for oats in Pakistan:
Oats (English), Jodra (Punjabi), Jai (Urdu), Javi (Saraiki)
Climate required for oats cultivation:
Oat is a cool climate crop. They do not grow in hot and dry conditions.
Soil requirements for oats cultivation:
Oat can be cultivated on wide range of soils. However, they thrive best on well drained loamy soils having good organic matter. The optimum soil Ph range required is 5.0 to 6.5 for higher yield. Oat crop tolerated higher pH range soils than wheat or barley.
Land preparation in Oats cultivation:
Land should be made weed free from previous planting or crop and it should be ploughed 6 to 7 times to achieve fine tilth stage.
Propagation in Oats cultivation:
Propagation is done through seeds.
Sowing and seed rate:
Generally sowing is done by seed drill as well as broadcast. In drilling method seed must be kept 20 cm to 30 cm distance apart between two rows. An average seed rate required is about 30 to 35 kg per acre land.
Manures and fertilizers in oats cultivation:
Application of FYM along with chemical fertilizers would increase the quality and crop yield. For an irrigated crop, 40 to 45 kg of N and 20 to 25 kg of P205 should be provided.
Irrigation in oats cultivation:
Usually, oats are cultivated as rain fed crop, in case of irrigated crop, it required 1 irrigation for every 15 days after sowing the seeds.
Harvesting in Oat Cultivation:
- Oat crop will become available for harvesting after 4 months of sowing.
- The oat crop matures within 120 days after sowing.
- For fodder purpose two cuttings are taken at 40 days interval.
- Then oat is left for seed setting.
- Harvesting for grain is done is early April before plant is dead ripe to avoid shedding of grain.
Yield in Oat Cultivation:
- When grown only for grain purpose 16 to 20 qt grain and 25 to 30 qt straw/ha.
- When grown as fodder the yield is about 200-300 qt fodder and 4 to 5 qts of grain/ha.