Uses of Turmeric:
- Used as a conditioner.
- Useful as a dye varied uses in drug and cosmetic industries.
- Used medicinally for external application and consumed as a stimulant.
- Different kinds of soils such as sandy loam to clay loam or alluvial soils are suitable. Well-drained loamy soils are the best.
- Soil should be rich in organic matter and uniform in texture.
- Rich loamy soils having natural drainage and irrigation facilities are the best.
- Turmeric cannot withstand water stagnation or alkalinity.
- Tropical crop, requiring warm and humid climate.
- Temperature range-246C to 28�C.
- Growth ceases when, temperature falls below 20�C, and hence early-planted turmeric gives good yield.
- Thrives well in localities with annual rainfall from 70 – 225 cm.
- Can be grown at an altitude of 1200 m.
Cultivation of Turmeric:
I) Seed Material:
a. Seed Selection:
- Seed of turmeric consists of rhizomes.
- Both mother and finger rhizomes are used.
- The fingers are cut into pieces, each 4-5 cm long with 1-2 buds. Mother rhizomes are planted as such or split into two, each having one sound bud.
- Mother rhizomes are preferred since they give 50% more yields than the finger rhizome and also give good growth.
- Large sized, plumy and healthy mother rhizomes at least 100 g in weight should be used.
b. Seed Rate:
- Varies according to type of planting material, spacing and weight of rhizomes.
- Mother rhizomes: 2000-2500 kg/ha.
- Finger rhizomes: 1500-2000 kg/ha.
- For Maharashtra: 2250 kg/ha.
- As an intercrop in fruit garden: 400 – 500 kg/ha.
c. Seed Treatment:
Rhizomes are treated with 50 Lindane powder and Bavistine (2 g/1) by dipping for 15-20 minutes for prevention of diseases and rhizomes fly during early period.
II) Preparation of Land:
- Starts immediately after harvest of previous crop or with/onset of early rains in plains.
- Land is ploughed 15-20 cm deep arid exposed to sun for one month. 2-3 crosswise harrowing are given.
- Temporary ridges are opened to prevent soil erosion on sloppy lands.
III) Systems of Planting:
- Flat Beds: Used under rainfed conditions where soils are light. Flat beds 1 m in width and-of suitable length varying according to the slope of land are prepared.
- Ridges and Furrows: Under irrigated-conditions where the land is leveled or plain and soils are heavy, planting is clone on ridges and furrows, opened at 75 cm distance and haying 3-3.5 m length. Broad ridges should having 90 -100 cm width and 3 – 6 m length depending on the slope.
Planting of Ginger:
a) Season of Planting: May to July depending on tract. In Maharashtra, second forth night of May is the best time of planting rhizomes.
Method of Planting:
- On Flat Beds: (25 x 2.5 cm) in each direction.
- On ridges and furrows: 40-60 x 25 cm.
- Rhizomes are planted at l/3rd height of ridge on broad ridge.
Manuring and Fertilization:
Turmeric is a heavy feeder crop.On the basis of experiments conducted at Turmeric Research Station, Recommended fertilizer dose is; 25-31 ton FYM, 120 kg N, 50 kg P205 and 50 kg K20/ha.
Time of Application:
Mixed crops like chilli, onion, brinjal and maize can be taken. In Maharashtra, it is recommended to grown French bean as an intercrop.
- Done when-planted on raised beds .
- 2-3 mulching, are given.
- 1st immediately after planting.
- 2nd and 3rd at an interval of 40 – 50 days.
b) Earthing up:
- To avoid exposure of developing underground rhizomes to sun due to soil erosion.
- Done with light digging, 2 – 2.5 months after planting.
- Pot is kept clean during first 4-6 weeks.
- Depending on intensity of weeds, 5-6 weeding are given.
- First irrigation sis given before planting.
- Second is given just after planting.
- Subsequent irrigations are given at 7-10 days interval depending on soil.
- A total of 20-25 irrigations are given, during the life period of the crop.